Lindsay Bywood is Senior Lecturer in Translation Studies at the University of Westminster, London, and teaches translation, audiovisual translation, and project management for translators at postgraduate level. She holds an MA in German and Philosophy from the University of Oxford, an MA in Translation from the University of Salford and is currently writing up her PhD. Her research centres around the diachronic variation in the subtitling of German films into English, with other research interests in machine translation and post-editing and the interface between industry and academia. Before becoming an academic she worked for many years in the audiovisual translation industry. She is deputy editor of The Journal of Specialised Translation (JoSTrans), reviews editor for Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, and a director of the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation (ESIST).